– PLANT DESCRIPTION:
The flowers are elongating racemes with an adjusted cluster at the end of the stem and maturing seed capsules along the stem below. The yellow blossoms are around 1/3 inch across, the four petals are oval to round, wide at the tip with a thin tapered base on a short stalk. Behind the flower are 4 narrow yellow sepals.
Leaves are variable. Lower leaves are over to 10 inches long and 4 inches wide, with a wide rounded lobe at the tip with a few deep lobes towards the leaf stalk, the edges coarsely toothed. Leaf shading is commonly green however can have purplish markings and tints.
The stems frequently with a waxy bloom on the surface. The main stem is unbranched in the lower plant but axillary branches proliferate in the upper plant.
Fruit is a smooth case, about ½ inch long with a short beak at the tip. Pods are erect, holding near the stem.Each pod holds an average of four seeds which can be dark brown to black with a rough textured surface. (1)
This plant frequently happens in full or partial sun, fertile soil, and mesic conditions. On less fertile ground, it is smaller in size. During hot sunny climate the leaves have a tendency to wilt, however they rapidly recuperate by nightfall. Sometimes this plant becomes lanky and flops sideways.
Flowering time: June – September. (2)
Seed grains. These are globular, dark brown and around one millimeter in diameter. The brown mustard species’ seeds are bigger (up to 2 mm) and somewhat lighter colored.
– CHEMICAL COMPOSITION:
Black mustard contains around 1% sinigrin (allylglucosinolate), a thioglycoside-like compound (called glucosinolate) of ally isothiocyanate with glucose. By action of the enzyme myrosinase, allyl isothiocyanate, a pungent, lachrymatory and volatile compound, is liberated (0.7% of the dried seed). Other than allyl isothiocyanate, in Romanian Brown Mustard another related compound is found, to be specific crotonyl isothiocyanate (2-butenylisothiocyanate). (3)
– BLACK MUSTARD USES & BENEFITS:
- Mustard seeds are a fantastic source of essential B-complex vitamins, for example, folates, niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), pantothenic acid. These vitamins are essential as body requires them from external sources to replenish. These B-complex groups of vitamins help in enzyme synthesis, regulating body metabolism and nervous system function.
- Black mustards help bring down blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
- Generally perceived as health profiting spice, mustard seeds are in reality exceptionally rich in phytonutrients, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants.
- Mustard seeds contain flavonoid and carotenoid antioxidants, for example, zeaxanthin, carotenes, and lutein.
- The seeds are an incredible source of vitamin-E, gamma tocopherol; contain around 19.82 mg for each 100 g. Vitamin-E is an powerful lipid soluble antioxidant, required for maintaining the integrity of cell membrane of mucosa and skin by shielding it from harmful oxygen-free radicals.
- Being one of the main oil seeds, mustards are without a doubt high in calories; 100 g of seeds give 508 calories. Still, the seeds are made of value proteins, essential oils, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber.
- Mustards are rich source of health benefiting minerals. Calcium, manganese, copper, iron, selenium and zinc are a some of the minerals particularly concentrated in these seeds. (4)
- Seeds act as a laxative, stimulant to the gastric mucosa and increment intestinal secretion.
- In India, mustard oil usually is applied to the scalp and is believed to stimulate hair growth.
- Mustard seeds and its oil has generally been utilized to relieve muscle pain, rheumatism and arthritic pain. (4)
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