Datura Stramonium – Thorn Apple

Datura Stramonium - Thorn Apple

– FAMILY:

Solanaceae

 

– PLANT DESCRIPTION:

Datura Stramonium is a rank-noticing, erect, shaggy annual herb, 0.5 to 2 meters tall with glabrous, green to purplish, strong stems. The roots might be shallow and broadly expanded, yet in a few soils a strong.

In the seedling stage, the primary leaves are ovate with pointed tips and few or no lobes. In later stages the leaves, which have an obnoxious odor when squashed, are alternate, ovate to extensively triangular, glabrous, unevenly toothed, 5-25 cm long, 4-25 cm wide, on a petiole and up to 10 cm long.

Flowers are generally borne erect on short peduncles in the axils of branches. The tubular calyx is 3 to 5 cm long with five unequal teeth, 3 – 10 mm long. The 5-lobed white or purplish corolla is tubular or trumpet-molded, 5 – 10 cm long, foul, with 5 stamens of equivalent length joined to the corolla close to the base. The fruit is an ovoid, erect container, 3.5 – 6.5 cm long, 2 – 5 cm wide, opening by four valves and thickly secured with pretty much equivalent spines up to 15 mm long, rarely smooth. The numerous seeds are dark brown colored to black, flat, kidney-molded with a irregularly pitted surface, 3 – 4 mm long, 2 – 3 mm wide. (1)

Parts Used:
Leaves, seeds

Common Names:
Common thornapple, devils trumpet, jamestown-weed, mad-apple, stinkwort.

Cultivation details:
Thornapple is easily cultivated, growing admirably in an open, sunnysituation. It will prosper in most reasonably good soils, however will do best in a rich calcareous soil, or in a decent sandy topsoil.
Seeds are sown in the open in May, in drills 3 feet separated, barely secured. Sow daintily, as the plants achieve a decent size and grow openly from seed. Disperse the young plants to a separation of 12 to 15 inches between each plant in the drill.
The soil ought to be kept free from weeds in the beginning periods, however the plants are so umbrageous and strong that they require little care later. On the off chance that the late spring is hot and dry, give a mulching of rotted cow-manure. (2)

List of Datura species:

  • Datura wrightii also called Southwestern Thorn Apple
  • Datura stramonium also called Jimson weed
  • Datura metaloides also called sacred datura
  • Datura inoxia named as Toloache
  • Datura discolor is also known as Moon flower.
  • Datura ceratocaula
  • Datura ferox: long spined thorn-apple
  • Datura leichhardti: Leichhardt’s datura
  • Datura quercifolia: Oak-leaf thorn-apple (3)




– CHEMICAL COMPOSITION:

The concentration of total alkaloids in the leaves of Datura stramonium is 0.2–0.5%, hyoscyamine being the major compound and scopolamine (= hyoscine), apoatropine, tropine, belladonnine and hyoscyamine N-oxide minor compounds; more than 70 alkaloids have been identified in the various parts of the plant. Biosynthetically, the main compounds all belong to the tropane alkaloids and are derived from the amino acid ornithine. (4)

 

– MEDICINAL USES OF THORN APPLE:

Thorn apple is used internally for fever from irritations, asthma, pain from intestinal parasites, Parkinson’s disease, and externally for abscesses, fistulas, dandruff and serious neuralgia. (5)

 

WARNING:

It can’t be stressed enough that datura is a toxic plant, and use of it without appropriate advisement isn’t recommended. Overabundance or dishonorable utilization can cause anything from nausea, dizziness, fatigue, and hallucinations to more serious impacts, for example, lasting mental awkward nature and even death. Use of datura is restricted in a few spots and countries, for example, the UK. Always speak to a medical professional or trained herbalist before using a new natural remedy, particularly one as powerful as datura! (6)

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